GUIDELINES FOR SYNOPSIS WRITING FOR POST-GRADUATE TRAINEES:
Synopsis is a short summarized document that focuses a briefed information of the research with conducting material & methods for postgraduate residents to have scientific plan of work to deliver inference & conclusion.
Components of a Synopsis:
The following components should be provided in a synopsis of Post Graduate research project.
1)Title Page or Page 1:
There should be the following information on the first page of the synopsis.
ii. Name of the Student
iii. Name of the Supervisor
iv. Place of work
A title page of the synopsis should include title of the research project, name of the student (with qualifications), name of the supervisor(s), place ow work and date (month and year) of submission.
The topic for research should be selected carefully. It should be specific and worded to show the nature of work involved as far as possible.
It should provide a brief description to introduce the area of the proposed research work.
Why your project is important
Where is it used? Applications
What you will talk about
Problems and shortcoming of their work
How your work is different and better
Broad objectives as visualized to be achieved should be clearly outlined and these should be itemized. These objectives will indicate the major aspects of the study to be undertaken.
♦ Operational Definition:
* It is definition of a term specifically telling how it will be measured examples:
Efficacy: These can be measured:
i. Time taken in relief of symptoms which may be pain, fever, cough, heartburn etc.
ii. Taking into account number of side effects.
iii. Time taken for complete recovery
Student is requirement to specify how he/she will measure efficacy.
* A hypothesis is a statement showing expected relation between 2 variables. A
hypothesis is needed in the following study designs:
* All interventional studies
* Case Control
* Comparative Cross Sectional
4) Review of Literature:
* What other people had to say on this topic(s) (be sure to cite your references,
and quotes as appropriate)
* What other people did on this topic or related topics
* Students must study at least 10 original research papers before writing of
5)Materials and Methods:
A plan of work describing the various aspects of the study in a logical sequence along with the methodologies to be employed, are the most important aspects of any research plan.
Study design: Mention the name of the appropriate study design.
Setting: Name and place where the research work is to be conducted.
Duration of Study: How long will the study take with dates?
Sample Size: How many patients will be included. If there are groups, how
many per group?
Sampling Technique: Type of sampling technique.
Inclusion Criteria: on what basis will patients be inducted in the study?
Exclusion Criteria: on what basis will patients be excluded from the study?
Data collection procedure: A detailed account of how the researcher will
perform research; how he/she will measure the variable.
It includes: Identification of the study variables
Methods for collection of data
Data collection tools (proforma/questionnaire)
Data analysis procedure: relevant details naming software to be used, which descriptive statistics and which test of significance if and when required, specifying variables where it will be applied.
Outcome & Utilization: Describe in which way the expected results of your study can be useful in designing and delivery of health care system.
6) Place of Work and Facilities Available.
In order to complete the proposed research some specialized facilities may be required. Therefore it is important to identify the place where the research work will be undertaken and whether the resources and facilities required for doing the research are available.
* Synopsis should contain at the end a list of references. All references in the text must be cited in and at the end must be in Vancouver style and number of citations should not be less than fifteen (15) out of which 5 references must be from books. References should include a number of books, list of articles published in research Journals.
** Webpage do not count. Wikipedia is not appropriate.
** Cite the papers / Books that you used
Citation in Text:
** A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the
source is referred to again, the same number is unsed.
** Use Arabic numerals (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
References at the end:
** In Vancouver style.
Journal: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article, Abbreviated
title of journal. Date of publication YYYY month; volume number (issue
** Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, Chiu V. Blood pressure levels before
dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1):112-6.
Book: Author AA, Title of book.# edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Page number.
** Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 4th ed. St. Louis:
Mosby; 2009. 541 p.
It will be difficult to define an overall length for a synopsis for Post Graduates in such different felid of study. Whereas it should be concise as far as possible and avoid repetitions, it should also provide sufficient details on the various aspects mentioned above to show that the research involved has been well understood and planned, and it is of an acceptable academic merit. The total length of a synopsis may rund from 1,500 to a few thousand words.
Data Collection Instrument:
The researcher must attach, as an annex, the performa or questionnaire with the help of which he/she intends to collect data. The performa/questionnaire must match the objectives and must not contain irrelevant sections like inclusion and exclusion criteria etc.
1: Font Shape: Time New Roman
2: Font Size: Main heading: 14 bold and underline
Ist subheading : 12 Bold
2nd subheading: 12 Bold and Italic
3: Line Spacing: 1.5
4: Paragraph Spacing: 0
5: Character Spacing: Normal Research supervisors are requested to make sure that the synopsis submitted by
their research students follows the format of writing the synopsis.
6: Margins: At least 3.17-3.81cm on the left-hand side, 2 -2.54cm at the top and bottom of the page, and 1.27 - 1.90cm at the outer edge.
The best position for the page number is at top-centre.
The thesis submitted by MD / MS candidate shall comply with the following conditions.
a. It shallform a distinct contribution to the knowledge and afford evidence of originality, shown by the discovery of new facts, by the exercise of independent critical judgment and lor bythe invention of new methods of investigation.
b. It shall be written in English and the presentation shall must be satisfactory for publication.
c. Any part of the thesis which has been published by the submission of the thesis may be appended atthe end of the thesis.
d. The thesis shall be typed onA4 size (11.69" x 8.27") paper width margins of 1-1/2" on the left and 1" to the right, top and bottom of each page. The thesis shall be hard bound with the black cloth coverand golden lettering on the frontand the back.
a). There shall be a standing list of external examiners for each discipline consisting of persons of eminence in the respective field of research. The list shall be suggested from time to time by the Board of studies of the departmentl institute , Board of faculty concerned and approved by the Research Board. The external examiners will be requested to critically examine the thesis for its suitability for acceptance. The candidate shall in the first instance submit 4 unbound copies of his / her complete thesis along with an application on prescribed form for the evaluation of his / her thesis duly forwarded by his / her supervisor and the Dean / Director of the PGMC along with Thesis Evaluation Fee of Rupees Ten Thousands only.
b).The Vice Chancellor shall appointthree external examiners from the approved list of external examiners.
C).The Reports of the examiners shall be placed before the Research Board for consideration.
d). If two of the examiners find that the thesis is wholly inadequate it may be rejected by the Research Board.
e).If any of the examiners suggests modification lrevision of the thesis, the candidate shall be required to resubmit a revised version of the thesis duly certified by the supervisor within one year.
f). The revised version of the thesis shall be approved by the same examiner(s) who suggest modification / revision of the thesis.
g). If any examiner finds the thesis adequate but suggests minor modification / revision, this may be incorporated without referring again to the examines as required in clause(i).
h). The candidate will submit the research thesis in final year of training six months before completion of the training.
SPECIAL RULES FOR DEGREE PROGRAM
" The Candidates must have Completed prescribed training period in the concerned specialty and has been a full time residential studentof the University.
" The students should have attended a minimum of 75% of lectures, demonstrations and practical work, failing which they will not be allowed to appear in the examination; in the later case they may be permitted to appear in the next examination provided they make up deficiency.
" Certificate of attendance from supervisor.
" Letter of Approval of thesis.
" The MD/MS candidates shall be required to pass Basic Medical Sciences Part-l Examination after that they will be allowed for training of Part-ll.
" Submission of duly signed complete log book.
" Certificates of having attended Computer & IT and other mandatory workshops.